Lonely Gods:
Social Minorities in American Superhero Comic Books

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Women in Comics Bibliography

 

The 1940s: Big Papa
  1. The characters of Catwoman and the Joker were both introduced in the first issue of the comic series Batman (Spring 1940). Catwoman's first appearance is collected in Catwoman:Nine Lives of a Feline Fatale (New York: DC Comics, 2004), and the Joker's first appearance is in The Greatest Joker Stories Ever Told (New York: DC Comics, 1988). The first character to go by the name of Robin (Dick Grayson) was introduced in Detective Comics issue 38 (April 1940), and was billed on the cover as "the find of 1940". This issue is collected in Batman Archives vol. 1 (New York: DC Comics, 1990).
  2. In Catwoman's first appearance, she was referred to only as "The Cat" and had not yet adopted her cat outfit, instead wearing a lengthy green dress. This would change within two issues, and by Batman #2 she is referred to as "Catwoman".
  3. "The Cat" in Batman issue 1 (Spring 1940), reprinted in Catwoman: Nine Lives of a Feline Fatale, Ed. Anton Kawasaki (DC Comics, 2004), p. 21.
  4. Ibid., p. 22.
  5. Steven McLauglin, et al. The Changing Lives of American Women. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), p. 22.
  6. "The Secret of Bruce Wayne!" in World's Finest Comics issue 6 (DC Comics, Summer 1942), p. 86.
  7. "Introducing Silk Satin" in The Spirit (March 16th, 1941), reprinted in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 23.
  8. Ibid., reprinted in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 24.
  9. The Spirit's longtime girlfriend was Ellen Dolan, the daughter of the Police Commissioner, whom the Spirit worked closely with.
  10. "Sphinx and Satin" in The Spirit (October 5th, 1941), reprinted in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 35.
  11. Ibid., reprinted in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 39.
  12. "Madam Minx" in The Spirit (February 15th, 1942), reprinted in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 46. In this issue Silk lamented once more that the Spirit already had a girlfriend, saying "You belong to Ellen Dolan - no matter what I feel!" (p. 44).
  13. "Meet P'Gell" in The Spirit (October 6th, 1946), reprinted in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 87.
  14. Michael Uslan, "The Spirit: Cherchez La Femme!" in The Spirit: Femmes Fatales (DC Comics, 2008), p. 7.
  15. "The Scoop of the Century!" in Batman issue 49 (DC Comics, October/November 1948), p. 15.
  16. Batman 49, p. 14.
  17. "Lights - Camera - Crime!" in Batman issue 50 (DC Comics, December/January 1948), p. 9.
  18. McLauglin, p. 23.
  19. Sara M. Evans, Born For Liberty: A History of Women in America (New York: Free Press Paperbacks, 1997), p. 201.
  20. Evans, p. 202.
  21. McLaughlin, p. 24-26.
  22. "The Man Who Couldn't Remember!" in World's Finest Comics issue 2 (DC Comics, Summer 1941), p. 93.


The 1950s: Damsels in Distress
  1. In the 1950s comics such as Superman introduced science fiction elements in order to add novelty and gain more readers. The sales of Batman comics were flagging at the time, and so Batman gained a science fiction makeover to increase his popularity.
  2. "The Batwoman," in Detective Comics issue 233 (July 1956), reprinted in Batman in the Fifties, eds. Whitney Ellsworth and Jack Schiff (DC Comics, 2002), p. 74.
  3. "The Batwoman" in Batman in the Fifties, p. 71-73.
  4. Batman in the Fifties, p. 5.
  5. "The Batwoman" in Batman in the Fifties, p. 76.
  6. This number was achieved by adding up the appearances of Batwoman in Batman, Detective Comics, and World's Finest Comics. Within this time period Batwoman appeared in Batman 20 times, Detective Comics 11 times, and World's Finest Comics 3 times. She also appeared several times before and after this period. The total number of her appearances prior to 1965 were 39.
  7. "The Challenge of Batwoman" in Batman issue 105 (DC Comics, February 1957), p. 4.
  8. Batman 105, p. 5.
  9. Batman 105, p. 7.
  10. Batman 105, p. 10.
  11. "Batwoman's New Identity" in Batman issue 116, (DC Comics, June 1958), p. 16.
  12. Batman 116, p. 19.
  13. "The Arch-Rivals of Gotham City" in Batman issue 119 (DC Comics, October 1958), p. 2.
  14. Batman 119, p. 8.
  15. "The Marriage of Batman and Batwoman!" in Batman issue 122 (DC Comics, March 1959), p. 27.
  16. Batman 122, p. 27.
  17. Batman 122, p. 29.
  18. "The Secret Life of the Catwoman," in Batman issue 62 (DC Comics, December 1950/January 1951), reprinted in Batman in the Fifties, p. 105-106.
  19. "The Secret Life of the Catwoman," in Batman in the Fifties, p. 113.
  20. McLauglin, p. 24.
  21. Kathleen C. Berkeley, The Women's Liberation Movement in America (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999), p. 13.


The 1960s and 1970s: Girl Power
  1. The science fiction elements that permeated the Batman comics of the 1950s and 1960s were cut out of the comics in 1964 by editor Julius Schwartz, in order to return to a more realistic tone. The characters of Batwoman and the first Batgirl were included in these cuts, to make way for more realistic characters such as the second Batgirl, Barbara Gordon. These elements, however, were only removed from the comic series Batman and Detective Comics. They remained in other series featuring Batman such as World's Finest Comics and The Brave and the Bold well into the 1980s. This also removed only the science fiction elements. Horror elements, such as ghosts and vampires, remained in the main Batman series through the 1970s.
  2. "Bat-Girl!" in Batman issue 139 (DC Comics, April 1961), p. 27.
  3. Batman 139, p. 29.
  4. Batman 139, p. 31.
  5. "Batwoman's Junior Partner" in Batman issue 141 (DC Comics, August 1961), p. 26.
  6. Batman 141, p. 30.
  7. "Bat-Mite Meets the Bat-Girl", in Batman issue 144 (DC Comics, December 1961), reprinted in Batman in the Sixties, ed. Rick Taylor, (DC Comics, 1999), p. 17.
  8. Batman in the Sixties, p. 24.
  9. "Prisoner of Three Worlds" in Batman issue 153 (February 1963), p. 7
  10. Batman 153, p. 10.
  11. Batman 153, p. 15.
  12. Batman 153, p. 16.
  13. Batman 153, p. 20.
  14. Batman 153, p. 25.
  15. "The Great Clayface-Joker Feud", in Batman issue 159 (DC Comics, November 1963), p. 8.
  16. Batman 159, p. 16.
  17. Batman in the Fifties, p. 9.
  18. Lucille Duberman, Gender and Sex in Society (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975), p. 17.
  19. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963, reprint, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2001), p. 71.
  20. Friedan, p. 92.
  21. Berkeley, pg xix.
  22. Evans, p. 276-277.
  23. After 1964 Betty Kane stopped appearing in the Batman comics, and her character was never mentioned again. Batwoman likewise had no more appearances until the 1970s. She briefly returned in the Batman Family series and even teamed up with Batgirl, but she was killed by assassins in Detective Comics issue 485 in 1979.
  24. "Batgirl Breaks Up the Dynamic Duo!" in Batman in the Sixties, p. 127.
  25. "Batgirl Breaks Up the Dynamic Duo!" in Batman in the Sixties, p. 131.
  26. Batman in the Sixties, p. 136.
  27. The series known today as Green Lantern/Green Arrow was actually not its own series, but rather a creative change implemented on the already-running Green Lantern series. The change occurred when author Denny O'Neil began to write for the series, and decided to introduce the character Green Arrow as a foil to Green Lantern. Green Arrow, a radical socialist, constantly argued with Green Lantern, who was politically and socially conservative. This new setup began in Green Lantern issue 76 and lasted through issue 89 before returning to more conventional "superhero" stories. Much of this run was later reprinted in the 1980s in a series titled Green Lantern/Green Arrow.
  28. Amy Kiste Nyberg, Seal of Approval: the History of the Comics Code, (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998), p. 139.
  29. Dennis O'Neal, "Introduction" in Green Lantern/Green Arrow issue 1 (DC Comics, October 1983), p. 2.
  30. Nyberg. p. 137.
  31. "Catwoman Sets Her Claws For Batman!" in Catwoman: Nine Lives of a Feline Fatale, p. 89.
  32. "The Cat and the Clown!" in The Joker issue 9 (DC Comics, September/October 1976), p. 7.
  33. The Joker issue 9, p. 10.
  34. Detective Comics issue 470 (DC Comics, June 1977), reprinted in Batman: Strange Apparitions (DC Comics, 1999), p. 39.
  35. Detective Comics issue 474 (DC Comics, December 1977), reprinted in Batman: Strange Apparitions, p. 98.
  36. Detective Comics issue 475 (DC Comics, February 1978), reprinted in Batman: Strange Apparitions, p. 109.
  37. Detective Comics issue 476 (DC Comics, March/April 1978), reprinted in Batman: Strange Apparitions, p. 139.
  38. Detective Comics issue 478 (DC Comics, July/August 1978), reprinted in Batman: Strange Apparitions, p. 149.


The 1980s: Pain and Suffering
  1. Frank Miller, The Dark Knight Returns (1986; reprint, New York: DC Comics, 1996), pg. 8.
  2. The Dark Knight Returns, pg. 85.
  3. "A Town on the Night", in Batman issue 392 (DC Comics, February 1986), reprinted in Catwoman: Nine Lives of a Feline Fatale Ed. Anton Kawasaki (New York: DC Comics, 2004), pg 132.
  4. Alan Moore, Batman: the Killing Joke (New York: DC Comics, 1988), pg 14.
  5. The Killing Joke, pg 15.
  6. Mike Cotton, "Last Call: Preparing for Retirement, Alan Moore Reflects on His Accomplishments", published online at http://www.wizarduniverse.com (May 11th, 2006).
    [Previously available at www.wizarduniverse.com/magazine/wizard/000116187.cfm, URL no longer works]
  7. Susan Faludi, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (1991; reprint, New York, Three Rivers Press, 2006), p. 205.
  8. Faludi, p. 251.
  9. Faludi, p. 248.
  10. Faludi, p. 269.
  11. Faludi, p. 271.


The 1990s and Beyond: Contradictions
  1. Birds of Prey: Old Friends, New Enemies, (DC Comics, 2003), p. 5.
  2. The Batgirl series ran for 73 issues, from April 2000 to April 2006.
  3. Batgirl issue 25 (DC Comics, April 2002), reprinted in Batgirl: Death Wish (DC Comics, 2003), p. 170-171. Ironically, Batgirl later learned Lady Shiva was her mother, and killed her in the final issue of Batgirl.
  4. The Catwoman series ran for 94 issues, from August 1993 to July 2001. This was followed by a second ongoing series in January 2002 which has published 66 issues as of April 2007.
  5. Batman issue 610 (DC Comics, February 2003), p. 21-22.
  6. Batman issue 615 (DC Comics, July 2003), p. 21.
  7. All Star Batman & Robin the Boy Wonder issue 1 (DC Comics, September 2005), p. 4.
  8. All Star Batman & Robin the Boy Wonder 1, p. 6-7.
  9. All Star Batman & Robin the Boy Wonder 1, p. 29.
  10. All Star Batman & Robin the Boy Wonder issue 2. (DC Comics, November 2005), p. 8.
  11. Kathleen C. Berkeley, The Women's Liberation Movement in America, p. 103.


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