Lonely Gods:
Social Minorities in American Superhero Comic Books

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Homosexuals in Comics Bibliography

 

The 1970s and Prior:
  1. Frederic Wertham, Seduction of the Innocent (New York: Rinehart & Co. 1954). Wertham specifically wrote: "The detrimental effect on character is if anything worse on girls than on boys. Their ego-ideal formation is interfered with by the fascination of the sadistic female comic-book heroines." p. 99.
  2. Wertham, p. 31-32. Wertham discussed how the heroes in jungle comics were always white and attractive, while the oppressed, superstitious black natives were drawn as "fleeting transitions between apes and humans".
  3. Wertham, p. 196-217, 353. Wertham devoted several pages to each type of advertisement, listing the negative effects of "bosom enhancers" (p.199-202), diet pills (p. 202-204), and acne medication (p. 205-208).He concluded: "These very young girls become entrapped by the sex appeal of comic book pictures and the 'emotional appeal' of their advertisements." p. 201.
  4. Wertham, p. 190.
  5. Wertham, p. 191.
  6. Wertham, ibid.
  7. John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America, (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1988), p. 289.
  8. D'Emilio and Freedman, p. 290.
  9. D'Emilio and Freedman, p. 291-292.
  10. Lucille Duberman, Gender and Sex in Society (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975), p. 49.
  11. D'Emilio and Freedman, p. 292.
  12. D'Emilio and Freedman, p. 293.
  13. Friedan, p. 383.
  14. Bart Beaty, Frederic Wertham and the Critique of Mass Culture (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005), p. 148.
  15. Beaty, p. 148.
  16. Beaty, p. 149-150.
  17. Beaty, p. 160.
  18. Comics Magazine Association of America, "Comics Code: 1954 Revision", reprinted in Nyberg, p. 168.
  19. D'Emilio and Freedman, p. 324.
  20. Not restrained by the Comics Code, many independent publishers created comics with a homosexual theme during the 1970s. The lesbian themed Come Out Comix appeared in 1974, followed by Gay Heart Throbs focusing on gay men in 1976. [http://www.gayleague.com/gay/timeline/].


The 1980s: Making Changes
  1. There have been several comic book series featuring the character The Hulk. The series The Hulk! (note the exclamation point) was originally titled The Rampaging Hulk when it began in 1977, but changed titles after the ninth issue. This series lasted 27 issues, and should not be confused with other Hulk series such as The Incredible Hulk from 1962 or Hulk from 1999.
  2. James Shooter, "A Very Personal Hell" in The Hulk! Issue 23 (Marvel Comics, October 1980), p. 8.
  3. The Hulk! Issue 23, p. 8.
  4. The Hulk! Issue 23, p. 10.
  5. Peter David, "When You Wish Upon Northstar", Comic Buyer's Guide (February 14th, 1992). Reprinted online at http://www.peterdavid.net. Accessed September 1st, 2006. [http://peterdavid.malibulist.com/archives/002241.html]
  6. Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States: A Documentary History, eds. Walter Williams and Yolanda Retter. (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 2003), p. 143.
  7. John Gallagher and Chris Bull, Perfect Enemies: The Battle Between the Religious Right and the Gay Movement, (New York: Madison Books, 2001), p. 27.
  8. Gallagher and Bull, p. 26-27.
  9. Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States, p. 162.
  10. Comics Magazine Association of America, "Comics Code: 1971 Revision", reprinted in Nyberg, p. 174.
  11. "Interview with Jim Shooter" [retrieved from http://forum.newsarama.com/showpost.php?p=2936365&postcount=54]
  12. John Byrne, "Questions About Comic Book Projects", published online at http://www.byrnerobotics.com. (August 24th 2004). [Available at http://byrnerobotics.com/FAQ/categories.asp]
  13. Ibid.
  14. "Family Ties" in Alpha Flight issue 10 (Marvel Comics, May 1984), p. 21.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Leading up the the twelfth issue and one year anniversary of Alpha Flight, advertisements proclaimed that one character would die in that issue. Many fans believed Northstar would be the one to die, but this was incorrect and the character who died was James Hudson/Guardian, the leader of Alpha Flight. After defeating several enemies and saving the day, Guardian had a 'wardrobe malfunction' when his broken power-suit exploded and he was incinerated in front of his wife.
  17. "Alpha Waves" in Alpha Flight issue 16 (Marvel Comics, November 1984), p. 23.
  18. "It's Not Easy Being Purple" in Alpha Flight issue 41 (Marvel, December 1986), p.4.
  19. "Auction" in Alpha Flight issue 42 (Marvel, January 1987), p. 4.
  20. "Plague!" in Alpha Flight issue 44 (Marvel, March 1987), p, 7.
  21. Alpha Flight 44, p. 9-10.
  22. D'Emilio, p. 354.
  23. D'Emilio, p. 354.
  24. D'Emilio, p. 354-355.
  25. D'Emilio, p. 344.
  26. "Resurrection" in Alpha Flight issue 45 (Marvel, April 1987), p. 4.
  27. "Madness" in Alpha Flight issue 48 (Marvel, July 1987), p. 15.
  28. "Flesh of My Flesh!" in Alpha Flight issue 49 (Marvel, August 1987), p. 20.
  29. Northstar's sister Aurora had multiple personalities and general mental instability.
  30. "This Mortal Coil!" in Alpha Flight issue 50 (Marvel, September 1987), p. 26.
  31. Alpha Flight 50, p. 29. Aurora, in contrast, was dragged away by demons and later sent to a monastery.
  32. Alpha Flight 50, p. 34.
  33. Peter David, "When You Wish Upon Northstar", Comic Buyer's Guide (February 14th, 1992).
  34. The Dark Knight Returns, p. 140.
  35. The Dark Knight Returns, p. 141, 150.
  36. "Dreadful Birthday, Dear Joker!", in Batman issue 321(March 1980), reprinted in The Greatest Joker Stories Ever Told, ed Mike Gold (DC Comics, 1988), p. 272.
  37. Grant Morrison, Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth (1989; reprint, DC Comics, 2004), p. 19-20.
  38. Arkham Asylum, p. 22.
  39. Arkham Asylum (reprint, 2004), appendix.
  40. "A Gold Star for the Joker", in The Joker issue 4 (November/December 1975), p. 3.
  41. The Joker 4, p. 17.
  42. "Pay or Die!", in The Brave and the Bold issue 141 (May/June 1978), p. 5.
  43. The Brave and the Bold 141, p. 8.


The 1990s: Coming Out
  1. "Fast Friends", in Flash, vol. 2, issue 53 (DC Comics, August 1991), p. 2.
  2. Flash issue 53, p. 3.
  3. Flash issue 53, p. 4.
  4. Flash issue 53, p. 11.
  5. "Speed Reading" in Flash, vol. 2, issue 57 (DC Comics, December 1991), p. 23.
  6. Flash issue 57, p. 24.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid., p. 23-24.
  9. "Alpha Waves" in Alpha Flight issue 100 (Marvel, September 1991), p. 45.
  10. "The Walking Wounded" in Alpha Flight issue 106 (Marvel, March 1992), p. 16-17.
  11. Alpha Flight 106, p. 20.
  12. Alpha Flight 106, p. 22.
  13. Alpha Flight 106, p. 23.
  14. "The Comics Break New Ground, Again." Editorial. New York Times, 24 January 1992, sec. A, p. 22.
  15. Renee Graham, "A Comic-Book Hero Comes Out of the Closet," The Boston Globe, 24 January 1992, sec. L, p. 25.
  16. Peter David, "When You Wish Upon Northstar", Comic Buyer's Guide (February 14th, 1992). "Direct" comics are series which are only shipped to subscribers or to specialty comic stores, and as such have a limited distribution.
  17. David, ibid.
  18. "Alpha Waves" in Alpha Flight issue 110 (Marvel, July 1992), p. 31.
  19. Alpha Flight ended after issue 130.
  20. Alpha Flight issue 114 (Marvel, November 1992), p. 12.
  21. Northstar issue 1 (Marvel, April 1994), p. 1.
  22. Northstar issue 3 (Marvel, June 1994), p. 6.
  23. Northstar issue 4 (Marvel, July 1994), p. 15.
  24. Northstar 4, p. 16.
  25. Comics Magazine Association of America, "Comics Code: 1971 Revision", reprinted in Nyberg, p. 170.
  26. Comics Magazine Association of America, "Comics Code: 1989 Revision", reprinted in Nyberg, p. 174.
  27. Comics Magazine Association of America, "Comics Code: 1954 Revision", reprinted in Nyberg, p. 175.
  28. "Colorado Amendment 2" in Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States, p. 207.
  29. "Oregon Measure 9" in Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States, p. 208.
  30. Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States, p. 208.
  31. Gallagher and Bull, p. 119-120.
  32. Gallagher and Bull, p. 123.


2000 and Beyond: Contradictions
  1. Batman issue 643 (DC Comics, Early October 2005), reprinted in Batman: War Crimes (DC Comics, 2006), p. 56.
  2. Batman issue 644 (DC Comics, Late October 2005), reprinted in Batman: War Crimes, p. 101.
  3. The Outsiders issue 3 (DC Comics, October 2003), p. 15.
  4. Letters Page in Young Avengers issue 2 (Marvel Comics, May 2005), p. 30.
  5. Allan Heinberg, ibid.
  6. Letters Page in Young Avengers issue 3 (Marvel Comics, June 2005), p. 28.
  7. Letters Page, ibid.
  8. Letters Page in Young Avengers issue 4 (Marvel Comics, July 2005), p. 28.
  9. Letters Page, ibid.
  10. Young Avengers issue 7 (Marvel, October 2005), p. 10.
  11. "Slap Leather - Part 3", in Rawhide Kid issue 3 (Marvel Comics, May 2003), p. 3.
  12. "Slap Leather", in Rawhide Kid issue 1 (Marvel Comics, April 2003), p. 13.
  13. Ultimate X-Men issue 65 (Marvel, January 2006), reprinted in Ultimate X-Men Volume 13: Magnetic North (Marvel Comics, 2006), p. 121.
  14. Ultimate X-Men Volume 13, p. 122. Colossus viewed Nightcrawler as "unique" because Nightcrawler had blue skin and a tail.
  15. Ultimate X-Men issue 67 (Marvel, March 2006), reprinted in Ultimate X-Men Volume 14: Phoenix? (Marvel Comics, 2006), p. 41.
  16. Victor Borkowski was first introduced as a background character in the second series titled New Mutants, which ran for thirteen issues from July 2003 to June 2004. This series should not be confused with the first New Mutants series, which began in 1983 and ran for 100 issues. After running for 13 issues the second New Mutants series was cancelled and a new series called New X-Men began with the same characters. This series ran for 46 issues until March 2008, when it was cancelled in the wake of the "Messiah CompleX" crossover and another series called Young X-Men began. Young X-Men only included a select few of the characters from New X-Men, and was cancelled after 12 issues.
  17. Comixfan and CBR are two online forums built around the topic of comic books. Authors Nunzio DeFilippis and Christina Weir had their own sub-forum on Comixfan, and would routinely post messages both there and at CBR.
  18. Web Forum post by Nunzio DeFilippis, September 7 2003, posted online at www.comixfan.com.
    http://www.comixfan.com/xfan/forums/showpost.php?p=608940&postcount=378.
  19. Web Forum post by Nunzio DeFilippis, May 16 2005, posted online at www.comixfan.com.
    http://www.comixfan.com/xfan/forums/showthread.php?t=33769 #1,
  20. New X-Men issue 13 (Marvel Comics, July 2005), p. 14. This issue was a tribute to Northstar, who at this point was dead, after having been killed off by Wolverine. Northstar later returned as a brainwashed assassin.
  21. Web Forum post by Nunzio DeFilippis, May 16, 2005, posted online at www.comixfan.com.
    http://www.comixfan.com/xfan/forums/showthread.php?t=33769 #1,
  22. New X-Men issue 43 (Marvel Comics, December 2007), p. 19.
  23. Green Lantern issue 129 (DC Comics, October 2000), p. 15.
  24. Green Lantern issue 137 (DC Comics, June 2001), p. 10.
  25. Green Lantern 137, p. 18.
  26. Green Lantern 137, ibid.
  27. Green Lantern issue 154 (DC Comics, November 2002), p. 2.
  28. Green Lantern 154, p. 6.
  29. Gotham Central issue 6 (DC Comics, June 2003), reprinted in Gotham Central: Half a Life (DC Comics, 2005), p. 71
  30. Gotham Central issue 7 (DC Comics, July 2003), reprinted in Gotham Central: Half a Life, p. 84.
  31. Gotham Central issue 10 (DC Comics, October 2003), reprinted in Gotham Central: Half a Life, p. 160.
  32. The "Eisner Awards" is the name commonly used for the Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards. The awards began in 1987 and include several categories such as "Best New Series", "Best Single Issue" and "Best Writer". The nominees for each year are voted on by the comic creators, retailers, and distributors. The Awards are considered the "Oscars" of the comic book industry. Gotham Central won the Eisner Award for "Best Serialized Story" in 2004.
  33. Greg Rucka, "Introduction" in Gotham Central: Half a Life, p. 4.


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